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In solid mechanics, Young's modulus (also known as the modulus of elasticity or elastic modulus) is a measure of the stiffness of a given material. It is defined as the limit for small strains of the rate of change of stress with strain. This can be experimentally determined from the slope of a stress-strain curve created during tensile tests conducted on a sample of the material. Young's modulus is named after Thomas Young the English physicist, physician, Egyptologist and gynecologist.

Units

The SI unit of modulus of elasticity is the pascal. Given the large values typical of many common materials, figures are often quoted in megapascals or gigapascals.

The modulus of elasticity can also be measured in other units of pressure, for example pounds per square inch (psi).

Usage

The Young's modulus allows the behavior of a material under load to be calculated. For instance, it can be used to predict the amount a wire will extend under tension, or to predict the load at which a thin column will buckle under compression. Some calculations also require the use of other material properties, such as the shear modulus, density, or Poisson's ratio.

Linear vs non-linear

For many materials, Young's modulus is a constant over a range of strains. Such materials are called linear, and are said to obey Hooke's law. Examples of linear materials include steel, carbon fiber, and glass. Rubber is a non-linear material.

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Directional materials

Most metals and ceramics, along with many other materials, are isotropic - their mechanical properties are the same in all directions.

It is not always the case. Some materials, particularly those which are composites of two or more ingredients have a "grain" or similar mechanical structure. As a result, these anisotropic materials have different mechanical properties when load is applied in different directions. For example, carbon fiber is much stiffer (higher Young's Modulus) when loaded parallel to the fibers (along the grain). Other such materials include wood and reinforced concrete.

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This article is copied from an article on Wikipedia.org - the free encyclopedia created and edited by online user community. The text was not checked or edited by anyone on our staff. Although the vast majority of the wikipedia encyclopedia articles provide accurate and timely information please do not assume the accuracy of any particular article. This article is distributed under the terms of GNU Free Documentation License.

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