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  Sunday March 24. 2019   Iron (Fe) Carbon (C) Nickel (Ni) Chromium (Cr) Manganese (Mn) Sulphur (S) Phosphorus (P) Silicon (Si)
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Iron

 is a chemical element in the periodic table that has the symbol Fe and atomic number 26.

Notable characteristics:

Iron is a chemical element with the symbol Fe (L.: Ferrum) and atomic number 26. Iron is a group 8 and period 4 metal. Iron is notable for being the final element produced by stellar nucleosynthesis, and thus the heaviest element which does not require a supernova or similarly cataclysmic event for its formation. It is therefore the most abundant heavy metal in the universe.

Iron is the most abundant metal on Earth, and is believed to be the tenth most abundant element in the universe. Iron is also the most abundant (by mass, 34.6%) element making up the Earth; the concentration of iron in the various layers of the Earth ranges from high at the inner core to about 5% in the outer crust; it is possible the Earth's inner core consists of a single iron crystal although it is more likely to be a mixture of iron and nickel; the large amount of iron in the Earth is thought to contribute to its magnetic field.

Iron is a metal extracted from iron ore, and is hardly ever found in the free (elemental) state. In order to obtain elemental iron, the impurities must be removed by chemical reduction. Iron is used in the production of steel, which is not an element but an alloy, a solution of different metals (and some non-metals, particularly carbon).

Nuclei of iron have some of the highest binding energies per nucleon, superseded only by the nickel isotope 62Ni. The universally most abundant of the highly stable nucleides is, however, 56Fe. This is formed by nuclear fusion in the stars. Although a further tiny energy gain could be extracted by synthesizing 62Ni, conditions in stars are not right for this process to be favoured. When a very large star contracts at the end of its life, internal pressure and temperature rise, allowing the star to produce progressively heavier elements, despite these being less stable than the elements around mass number 60 (the "iron group"). This leads to a supernova.

Some cosmological models with an open universe predict that there will be a phase where as a result of slow fusion and fission reactions, everything will become iron

Applications:

Iron is the most used of all the metals, comprising 95 percent of all the metal tonnage produced worldwide. Its combination of low cost and high strength make it indispensable, especially in applications like automobiles, the hulls of large ships, and structural components for buildings. Steel is the best known alloy of iron, and some of the forms that iron takes include:

Carbon steel contains between 0.4% and 1.5% carbon, with small amounts of manganese, sulfur, phosphorus, and silicon.

Alloy steels contain varying amounts of carbon as well as other metals, such as chromium, vanadium, molybdenum, nickel, tungsten, etc. They are used for structural purposes, as their alloy content raises their cost and necessitates justification


 
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