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is a metallic chemical element in the periodic table that has the symbol Ni and atomic number 28.

Notable characteristics:

Nickel is a silvery white metal that takes on a high polish. It belongs to the iron group, and is hard, malleable, and ductile. It occurs combined with sulfur in millerite, with arsenic in the mineral niccolite, and with arsenic and sulfur in nickel glance.

On account of its permanence in air and inertness to oxidation, it is used in the smaller coins, for plating iron, brass, etc., for chemical apparatus, and in certain alloys, as German silver. It is magnetic, and is very frequently accompanied by cobalt, both being found in meteoric iron. It is chiefly valuable for the alloys it forms.

Nickel is one of the five ferromagnetic elements. However, the US "nickel" coin is not magnetic, because it actually is mostly copper, but old Canadian nickels minted until 1958 were.

The most common oxidation state of nickel is +2, though 0, +1 and +3 Ni complexes are observed.

The unit cell of nickel is an FCC with a lattice parameter of 0.356 nm giving a radius of the atom of 0.126 nm.

Nickle-58 is one of the most stable nuclides of all the existing elements, second in stability only to Iron-56.


About 65 percent of the nickel consumed in the Western World is used to make austenitic stainless steel. Another 12 percent goes into superalloys. The remaining 23% of consumption is divided between alloy steels, rechargeable batteries, catalysts and other chemicals, coinage, foundry products, and plating. The five-cent Canadian and US coin is only 25% nickel. The largest consumer of nickel is Japan, which uses 169,600 tonnes per year (2005) 1.

Applications include but are not limited to:

  • Stainless steel and other corrosion-resistant alloys.

  • Nickel steel is used for armour plates and burglar-proof vaults.

  • The alloy Alnico is used in magnets.

  • Mu-metal has an especially high magnetic permeability, and is used to screen magnetic fields.

  • Monel metal is a copper-nickel alloy highly resistant to corrosion, used for ship propellers, kitchen supplies, and chemical industry plumbing

  • Smart wire, or shape memory alloys, are used in robotics.

  • Rechargeable batteries, such as nickel metal hydride batteries and nickel cadmium batteries.

  • Coinage. In the United States and Canada, nickel is used in five-cent coins called nickels. See also clad.

  • In electroplating.

  • In crucibles for chemical laboratories.

  • Finely divided nickel is a catalyst for hydrogenating vegetable oils.

  • Rocket engines and Gas Turbines.

28 cobalt nickel copper
Name, Symbol, Number nickel, Ni, 28
Chemical series transition metals
Group, Period, Block 10, 4, d
Appearance lustrous, metallic
Atomic mass 58.6934(2) g/mol
Electron configuration [Ar] 3d8 4s2
Electrons per shell 2, 8, 16, 2
Physical properties
Phase solid
Density (near r.t.) 8.908 g/cm³
Liquid density at m.p. 7.81 g/cm³
Melting point 1728 K
(1455 XC, 2651 XF)
Boiling point 3186 K
(2913 XC, 5275 XF)
Heat of fusion 17.48 kJ/mol
Heat of vaporization 377.5 kJ/mol
Heat capacity (25 XC) 26.07 J/(molPK)
Vapor pressure
P/Pa 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k
at T/K 1783 1950 2154 2410 2741 3184
Atomic properties
Crystal structure cubic face centered
Oxidation states 2, 3
(mildly basic oxide)
Electronegativity 1.91 (Pauling scale)
Ionization energies
1st: 737.1 kJ/mol
2nd: 1753.0 kJ/mol
3rd: 3395 kJ/mol
Atomic radius 135 pm
Atomic radius (calc.) 149 pm
Covalent radius 121 pm
Van der Waals radius 163 pm
Magnetic ordering ferromagnetic
Electrical resistivity (20 XC) 69.3 n[Pm
Thermal conductivity (300 K) 90.9 W/(mPK)
Thermal expansion (25 XC) 13.4 µm/(mPK)
Speed of sound (thin rod) (r.t.) 4900 m/s
Young's modulus 200 GPa
Shear modulus 76 GPa
Bulk modulus 180 GPa
Poisson ratio 0.31
Mohs hardness 4.0
Vickers hardness 638 MPa
Brinell hardness 700 MPa
CAS registry number 7440-02-0
Notable isotopes
Main article: Isotopes of nickel
iso NA half-life DM DE (MeV) DP
56Ni syn 6.075 d ` - 56Co
^ 0.158, 0.811 -
58Ni 68.077% Ni is stable with 30 neutrons
59Ni syn 76000 y ` - 59Co
60Ni 26.233% Ni is stable with 32 neutrons
61Ni 1.14% Ni is stable with 33 neutrons
62Ni 3.634% Ni is stable with 34 neutrons
63Ni syn 100.1 y ]- 0.0669 63Cu
64Ni 0.926% Ni is stable with 36 neutrons
stainless steel pipe F316L 316L 316 304L F304L 304 flange A105 carbon steel

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