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Chromium

is a chemical element in the periodic table that has the symbol Cr and atomic number 24.

Notable characteristics:

Chromium is a steel-gray, lustrous, hard metal that takes a high polish, and melts with difficulty. Its tendency to oxidize causes it to tarnish.

The most common oxidation states of chromium are +2, +3, and +6, with +3 being the most stable. +4 and +5 are rare. Chromium compounds of oxidation state 6 are powerful oxidants.

Chromium(0) is unstable in oxygen, immediately producing a thin oxide layer that is impermeable to oxygen and protects the metal below.

Applications:
Uses of chromium:
  • In metallurgy, to impart corrosion resistance and a shiny finish:
    • as an alloy constituent, such as in stainless steel in cutlery
    • in chrome plating,
    • in anodized aluminium, literally turning the surface of aluminium into ruby.
  • As dyes and paints.
    • Chromium(III) oxide is a metal polish known as green rouge.
    • Chromium salts color glass an emerald green.
    • Chromium is what makes a ruby red, and therefore is used in producing synthetic rubies.
  • As a catalyst.
  • Chromite is used to make molds for the firing of bricks.
  • Chromium salts are used in the tanning of leather.
  • Potassium dichromate is a chemical reagent, used in cleaning laboratory glassware and as a titrating agent. It is also used as a mordant (i.e., a fixing agent) for dyes in fabric.
  • Chromium(IV) oxide (CrO2) is used to manufacture magnetic tape, where its higher coercivity than iron oxide tapes gives better performance.
  • In well drilling muds as an anti-corrosive.

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24 vanadium chromium manganese
General
Name, Symbol, Number chromium, Cr, 24
Chemical series transition metals
Group, Period, Block 6, 4, d
Appearance silvery metallic
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Atomic mass 51.9961(6) g/mol
Electron configuration [Ar] 3d5 4s1
Electrons per shell 2, 8, 13, 1
Physical properties
Phase solid
Density (near r.t.) 7.15 g/cm³
Liquid density at m.p. 6.3 g/cm³
Melting point 2180 K
(1907 XC, 3465 XF)
Boiling point 2944 K
(2671 XC, 4840 XF)
Heat of fusion 21.0 kJ/mol
Heat of vaporization 339.5 kJ/mol
Heat capacity (25 XC) 23.35 J/(molPK)
Vapor pressure
P/Pa 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k
at T/K 1656 1807 1991 2223 2530 2942
Atomic properties
Crystal structure cubic body centered
Oxidation states 6, 3, 2
(strongly acidic oxide)
Electronegativity 1.66 (Pauling scale)
Ionization energies
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1st: 652.9 kJ/mol
2nd: 1590.6 kJ/mol
3rd: 2987 kJ/mol
Atomic radius 140 pm
Atomic radius (calc.) 166 pm
Covalent radius 127 pm
Miscellaneous
Magnetic ordering AFM (rather: SDW)
Electrical resistivity (20 XC) 125 n[Pm
Thermal conductivity (300 K) 93.9 W/(mPK)
Thermal expansion (25 XC) 4.9 µm/(mPK)
Speed of sound (thin rod) (20 XC) 5940 m/s
Young's modulus 279 GPa
Shear modulus 115 GPa
Bulk modulus 160 GPa
Poisson ratio 0.21
Mohs hardness 8.5
Vickers hardness 1060 MPa
Brinell hardness 1120 MPa
CAS registry number 7440-47-3
Notable isotopes
Main article: Isotopes of chromium
iso NA half-life DM DE (MeV) DP
50Cr syn > 1.81017y `` - 50Ti
51Cr syn 27.7025 d ` - 51V
^ 0.320 -
52Cr 83.789% Cr is stable with 28 neutrons
53Cr 9.501% Cr is stable with 29 neutrons
54Cr 2.365% Cr is stable with 30 neutrons
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stainless steel F316L flange pipe F304L 304L 304 316L 316 carbon steel flange A105 ansi b16.5 A312 A269


 
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