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is a chemical element in the periodic table that has the symbol Mn and atomic number 25.

Notable characteristics:

Manganese is a gray-white metal, resembling iron. It is a hard metal and is very brittle, fusible with difficulty, but easily oxidized. Manganese metal is ferromagnetic only after special treatment.

The most common oxidation states of manganese are +2, +3, +4, +6 and +7, though oxidation states from +1 to +7 are observed. Mn2+ often competes with Mg2+ in biological systems, and manganese compounds where manganese is in oxidation state +7 are powerful oxidizing agents.


Manganese is essential to iron and steel production by virtue of its sulfur-fixing, deoxidizing, and alloying properties. Steelmaking, including its ironmaking component, has accounted for most manganese demand, presently in the range of 85% to 90% of the total demand. Among a variety of other uses, manganese is a key component of low-cost stainless steel formulations and certain widely used aluminium alloys. It is also added to gasoline in order to reduce engine knocking. Manganese(IV) oxide (manganese dioxide) is used in the original type of dry cell battery. Manganese dioxide is also used as a catalyst. Manganese is used to decolorize glass (removing the greenish tinge that presence of iron produces) and, in higher concentration, make violet-colored glass. Manganese oxide is a brown pigment that can be used to make paint and is a component of natural umber. Potassium permanganate is a potent oxidizer and used in chemistry and in medicine as a disinfectant. Manganese phosphating is used for rust and corrosion preventation on steel.

The overall level and nature of manganese use in the United States is expected to remain about the same in the near term. No practical technologies exist for replacing manganese with other materials or for using domestic deposits or other accumulations to reduce the complete dependence of the United States on other countries for manganese ore.

Substitutes: Manganese has no satisfactory substitute in its major applications. In minor applications, (e.g., manganese phosphating), zinc and sometimes vanadium are viable substitutes


25 chromium manganese iron
Name, Symbol, Number manganese, Mn, 25
Chemical series transition metals
Group, Period, Block 7, 4, d
Appearance silvery metallic
Atomic mass 54.938045(5) g/mol
Electron configuration [Ar] 3d5 4s2
Electrons per shell 2, 8, 13, 2
Physical properties
Phase solid
Density (near r.t.) 7.21 g/cm³
Liquid density at m.p. 5.95 g/cm³
Melting point 1519 K
(1246 XC, 2275 XF)
Boiling point 2334 K
(2061 XC, 3742 XF)
Heat of fusion 12.91 kJ/mol
Heat of vaporization 221 kJ/mol
Heat capacity (25 XC) 26.32 J/(molPK)
Vapor pressure
P/Pa 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k
at T/K 1228 1347 1493 1691 1955 2333
Atomic properties
Crystal structure cubic body centered
Oxidation states 7, 6, 4, 2, 3
(strongly acidic oxide)
Electronegativity 1.55 (Pauling scale)
Ionization energies 1st: 717.3 kJ/mol
2nd: 1509.0 kJ/mol
3rd: 3248 kJ/mol
Atomic radius 140 pm
Atomic radius (calc.) 161 pm
Covalent radius 139 pm
Magnetic ordering nonmagnetic
Electrical resistivity (20 XC) 1.44 µ[Pm
Thermal conductivity (300 K) 7.81 W/(mPK)
Thermal expansion (25 XC) 21.7 µm/(mPK)
Speed of sound (thin rod) (20 XC) 5150 m/s
Young's modulus 198 GPa
Bulk modulus 120 GPa
Mohs hardness 6.0
Brinell hardness 196 MPa
CAS registry number 7439-96-5
Notable isotopes
Main article: Isotopes of manganese
iso NA half-life DM DE (MeV) DP
52Mn syn 5.591 d ` - 52Cr
]+ 0.575 52Cr
^ 0.7, 0.9, 1.4 -
53Mn syn 3.74 106 y ` - 53Cr
54Mn syn 312.3 d ` - 54Cr
^ 0.834 -
55Mn 100% Mn is stable with 30 neutrons

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