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Molybdenum (Mo)

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 Molybdenum (Mo)
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is a chemical element in the periodic table. Its symbol is Mo and its atomic number 42

Notable characteristics:

Molybdenum is a transition metal. The pure metal is silvery white in color and very hard, and has one of the highest melting points of all pure elements. In small quantities, molybdenum is effective at hardening steel. Molybdenum is important in plant nutrition, and is found in certain enzymes, including xanthine oxidase.


Over 2/3 of all molybdenum is used in alloys. Molybdenum use soared during World War I, when demand for tungsten (Wolfram) made tungsten scarce and high-strength steels were at a premium. Molybdenum is used to this day in high-strength alloys and in high-temperature steels. Special molybdenum-containing alloys, such as the Hastelloys, are notably heat-resistant and corrosion-resistant. Molybdenum is used in oil pipelines, aircraft and missile parts, and in filaments. Molybdenum finds use as a catalyst in the petroleum industry, especially in catalysts for removing organic sulfurs from petroleum products. Mo-99 is used in the nuclear isotope industry. Molybdenum oranges are pigments ranging from red-yellow to a bright red orange and used in paints, inks, plastics, and rubber compounds. Molybdenum disulfide is a good lubricant, especially at high temperatures. Molybdenum is also used in some electronic applications, as the conductive metal layers in thin-film transistors (TFTs).

42 niobium molybdenum technetium
Name, Symbol, Number molybdenum, Mo, 42
Chemical series transition metals
Group, Period, Block 6, 5, d
Appearance gray metallic
Atomic mass 95.94(2) g/mol
Electron configuration [Kr] 4d5 5s1
Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 13, 1
Physical properties
Phase solid
Density (near r.t.) 10.28 g/cm³
Liquid density at m.p. 9.33 g/cm³
Melting point 2896 K
(2623 XC, 4753 XF)
Boiling point 4912 K
(4639 XC, 8382 XF)
Heat of fusion 37.48 kJ/mol
Heat of vaporization 617 kJ/mol
Heat capacity (25 XC) 24.06 J/(molPK)
Vapor pressure
P/Pa 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k
at T/K 2742 2994 3312 3707 4212 4879
Atomic properties
Crystal structure cubic body centered
Oxidation states 2, 3, 4, 5, 6
(strongly acidic oxide)
Electronegativity 2.16 (Pauling scale)
Ionization energies
1st: 684.3 kJ/mol
2nd: 1560 kJ/mol
3rd: 2618 kJ/mol
Atomic radius 145 pm
Atomic radius (calc.) 190 pm
Covalent radius 145 pm
Magnetic ordering no data
Electrical resistivity (20 XC) 53.4 n[Pm
Thermal conductivity (300 K) 138 W/(mPK)
Thermal expansion (25 XC) 4.8 µm/(mPK)
Speed of sound (thin rod) (r.t.) 5400 m/s
Young's modulus 329 GPa
Shear modulus 20 GPa
Bulk modulus 230 GPa
Poisson ratio 0.31
Mohs hardness 5.5
Vickers hardness 1530 MPa
Brinell hardness 1500 MPa
CAS registry number 7439-98-7
Notable isotopes
Main article: Isotopes of molybdenum
iso NA half-life DM DE (MeV) DP
92Mo 14.84% Mo is stable with 50 neutrons
93Mo syn 4103 y ` - 93Nb
94Mo 9.25% Mo is stable with 52 neutrons
95Mo 15.92% Mo is stable with 53 neutrons
96Mo 16.68% Mo is stable with 54 neutrons
97Mo 9.55% Mo is stable with 55 neutrons
98Mo 24.13% Mo is stable with 56 neutrons
99Mo syn 65.94 h ]- 0.436, 1.214 99Tc
^ 0.74, 0.36,
100Mo 9.63% 7.81018 y ]-]- @ 100Ru
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